Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis Software: AUTOGOJA

AutoGOJA Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis > How to Perform a Job Analysis

How to Perform a Job Analysis

There are eight major steps in completing a job analysis. While there is no "one, right way," the steps below are provided as a template for developing a job analysis designed to provide a foundation for validation. This process is adopted from the Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) process, which has been supported in numerous EEO cases and reviewed in several textbooks and articles.

Step 1: Assemble and train a panel of qualified job experts (subject matter experts)

Job experts are qualified job incumbents who perform or supervise the target position. The following criteria are presented as guidelines for selecting the members of the panel. The job experts chosen should:

Collectively represent the demographics of the employee population (with respect to gender, age, race, years of experience, etc.). It is a good idea to slightly over-sample gender and ethnic groups to insure adequate representation in the job analysis process.

Be experienced and active in the position they represent (e.g., job experts should not be on probationary status or temporarily assigned to the position). While seasoned job experts will often have a good understanding of the position, it is also beneficial to include relatively inexperienced job experts to integrate the "newcomer's perspective." However, at least one-year job experience should be a baseline requirement for job experts selected for the panel.

Include between 10% and 20% supervisors for a given position. For example, if a seven-to-ten-person job experts panel is used, include one to two supervisors on the panel.

Represent the various "functional areas" and/or shifts of the position. Many positions have more than one division or "work area" or even different shifts, where job duties and KSAPCs may differ.

Step 2: Job experts write job duties

In this step, job experts independently write job duties performed in the target position without providing any ratings (e.g., frequency, importance). Having job experts independently identify duties is an important first step in the job analysis process. This independent work - without a group or "paired" discussion - helps insure that the final combined list of duties (which is the next step) is as complete as possible. Job duties should usually begin with an action word, include the process (tasks) for completing the duty, and include the work product or outcome of the duty. For example: "Prepare correspondence using word processing software and reference documents and deliver to clients using e-mail."

Allowing multiple, independent opinions typically allows a final duty list to be created that, after being consolidated, includes two to three times the number of duties that any individual job experts recorded. Depending on the complexity of the job, providing job experts with one to two hours to record their job duties is usually sufficient.

Step 3: Consolidate duties into a master duty list

After the job experts have independently recorded the duties of the target position, a facilitator should convene the panel and develop a master, consolidated list that reflects the majority opinion of the group. Using a 70% consensus rule (e.g., 7 out of 10) for this step is suggested or a lower ratio may be used if the job analysis results will be sent in survey form to a larger job expert sample. at this step, job duties from pre-existing job descriptions and other suggestions or data from management should be integrated into the discussion and added to the master list if the majority of the job experts agree.

Step 4: Write KSAPCs, physical requirements, tools & equipment, other requirements, and standards

Have the job experts repeat the process described in Step 2, but for the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards. The following definitions can be helpful for this step:

Knowledge: A knowledge is a body of information that is applied directly to the performance of a duty. For example: Knowledge of construction standards, codes, laws, and regulations.

Skill: A skill is a present, observable competence necessary to successfully perform a learned physical duty. For example: Skill to build basic wood furniture such as bookcases, tables, and benches from raw lumber.

Ability: A present competence to perform an observable duty or to perform a non-observable duty that results in a product. For example: The ability to effectively present complex technical information to students in a formal classroom setting using a variety of approaches as needed to maximize student learning.

Personal Characteristics: These are characteristics that are not as concrete as individual knowledge, skills, or abilities. Examples include "dependability," "conscientiousness," or "stress tolerance."

The Uniform Guidelines do not permit measuring abstract traits in content-validated selection process (see Section 14C1) unless they are clearly operationally defined in terms of observable aspects of job behavior. For example, while the characteristic "dependability" (if left undefined) is too abstract to directly measure in a selection process, if it can be defined as "promptness and regularity of attendance," which is an observable work behavior, it can be measured. "Stress tolerance," if not clearly operationally defined, is also too abstract for inclusion in a selection process under a content validity approach. However, if defined as "the ability to complete job duties in a timely and efficient manner while enduring stressful or adverse working conditions," it is converted into an essential work ability that is readily observable on the job.

So, if one desires to include personal characteristics in the selection process, turn them from abstract ideas to concrete, observable skills and abilities that are job related. Physical Requirements, Other Requirements, and Standards will vary greatly between jobs. Several existing taxonomies are available - download the FREE Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis Manual for several examples of each.

Step 5: Consolidate KSAPCs, physical requirements, tools & equipment, other requirements, and standards into a master list

For this step, the job experts repeat the process described in Step 3, but for the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards. as in Step 3, the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards from pre-existing job descriptions and other suggestions or data from management can be included in the process.

Step 6: Have job experts provide ratings for duties, KSAPCs, and physical requirements

The job experts and supervisors can provide ratings now that a final list of duties and KSAPCs has been compiled. For job duties, job experts can provide the following ratings (see the the FREE Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis Manual for sample rating scales):

Frequency of Performance: How frequently is the job duty performed? daily? Weekly? This is not a requirement under the Uniform Guidelines for content validity, but it is useful for several practical reasons. (note, however, that it is required for criterionrelated validity studies!) One of the useful purposes for this rating is for determining which job duties constitute essential functions under the americans with disabilities act (Section 1630.2[n][3][iii]).

Importance: How important is competent performance of the job duty? What are the consequences if it is not done or done poorly? The importance rating is perhaps one of the most critical ratings that Job Experts provide. Section 14C2 of the Uniform Guidelines states that the duties selected for a selection procedure (e.g., a work sample test) ". should be critical work behavior(s) and/or important work behavior(s) constituting most of the job."

Thus, the Uniform Guidelines are clear that when using content validity for a work sample test, the selection procedure can be linked to a single critical duty ("critical" is later defined by the Uniform Guidelines as "necessary"), or several important duties that constitute most of the job.

For KSAPCs and Physical Requirements, job experts can rate:

Links to duties: Where is this KSaPC/Physical Requirement actually applied on the job? What are the job duties (by duty number) where it is used? This step is key for establishing content validity evidence. by linking the duties to the KSaPCs and Physical Requirements, a nexus is created showing where actual job skills (for example) are actually applied on the job. Completing this step addresses Section 14C4 of the Uniform Guidelines.

Frequency: How often is this KSAPC/Physical Requirement applied on the job? While it is a good idea to obtain a direct rating from job experts on this factor, this question can also be answered by determining the job duty with the highest frequency rating to which the KSaPC/Physical Requirement is linked.

Importance: How important is the KSAPC/Physical Requirement to competent job performance? This is perhaps the most important rating in a content validity study because the Uniform Guidelines require that a selection procedure measuring a KSAPC/Physical Requirement should be shown to be a "necessary prerequisite" of "critical or important work behaviors" and shown to be "used in the performance of those duties" (Sections 14C4 and 15C5).

Because the Uniform Guidelines make this clear distinction between only "important" and "critical or necessary," the importance rating scale should take this into consideration by making a clear demarcation in the progression of importance levels between important and critical. A selection procedure measuring KSAPCs/Physical Requirements should be linked to critical and/or important work duties, and should be rated as "critical" or "necessary" by job experts.

All job experts who participated in the job analysis process can provide ratings; however, in Step 7, using only two supervisors is sufficient for providing the supervisor ratings. Calculating inter-rater reliability and removing outliers from the data set can be a useful step for insuring that the raters are providing valid ratings. After all ratings are collected, they should be reviewed for accuracy and completeness, and then averages for each job duty and KSAPC rating should be calculated. This should be performed before proceeding further because supervisors will consider the rating averages in subsequent steps.

Optional step for positions with a large numbers of incumbents: Distribute a job analysis survey to additional job experts for ratings.

Completing the six steps above results in a completed job analysis that represents the collective and majority opinions of the seven to ten job experts included in the process. While including seven to ten job experts in the process is likely to provide accurate and reliable information about a position for many employers, increasing the job expert sample size will increase the accuracy and reliability of the information about the position (if there are more than ten job experts in the position). Obtaining the opinions of additional job experts can be completed using a job analysis survey (JaS). a JaS can be prepared by providing the duties, KSAPCs, and Physical Requirements in survey form to the job experts and having the job experts rate the "content" of each, in addition to all other standard "job-holder ratings."

For example, job experts can use the following scale in a JaS for rating each duty:

This duty is (select one option from below) a duty that I perform.

Not at all similar to (does not describe)
Somewhat similar to (some of the objects listed and actions described in the duty are somewhat similar to the objects and actions in the duty performed in your job)
Similar to (most of the objects listed and actions described in the duty are similar to the objects and actions in the duty performed in your job)
The same as (extremely similar or exactly like) job experts can use the following scale to rate each KSAPCs and Physical Requirements:

This KSAPC/Physical Requirement is (select one option from below) a KSAPC/Physical Requirement I apply on the job.

Not at all similar to (does not closely describe)
Somewhat similar to (somewhat describes)
Similar to (closely describes)
The same as (very accurately describes)

One potential benefit of providing the additional job expert group with a JAS is that the additional job experts may know of other legitimate job duties, KSAPCs, or Physical Requirements that are required for the position, but were not identified by the original job expert group. It is suggested to provide extra space on the JaS where the additional job experts can record and rate additional duties, KSAPCs, and/or Physical Requirements they identify while completing the JaS.

It is recommended to use 3.0 as the minimum average rating criteria for these two ratings when deciding whether to include a duty or KSAPC/Physical Requirement in a final job analysis.

Step 7: Have two supervisors review the completed job analysis and assign supervisor ratings

After the final job duty, KSAPC, and Physical Requirements have been rated by the job experts and the ratings have been averaged, convene two supervisors (these supervisors may have participated in the first six steps of the process, or can be new to the job analysis process) to assign the "Supervisor Only" job expert ratings. The ratings that supervisors should provide for job duties include:

Percentage of Time: When considering all job duties, what percentage of a typical incumbent's time is spent performing this job duty? Evaluating the percentage of time that incumbents spend on a particular duty is one of several factors that should be considered when making essential function determinations under the 1990 americans with disabilities act (Section 1630.2[n][3][iii]). While helpful, it is not absolutely required for content validation studies.

Best Worker: What job duties distinguish the "minimal" from the "best" worker? Job duties that are rated high on the best Worker rating are those that, when performed above the "bare minimum," distinguish the "best" performers from the "minimal." For example, lifting boxes and occasionally helping guests with luggage may be necessary for a hotel receptionist position. However, performing these job duties at a level "above the minimum" will not likely make any difference in a person's overall job performance. It would likely be other job duties such as "greeting hotel guests and completing check-in/check-out procedures in a timely and friendly fashion" that would distinguish between the "minimal" and the "best" workers for this job.

The average rating on this scale can provide guidance for using a work sample type of content validity selection procedure on a pass/fail, ranking, or banding basis (see Section 14C9 of the Uniform Guidelines). it is not necessary to obtain this rating for job duties unless the employer desires to validate a work sample type of selection procedure (i.e., a selection procedure that relies on linkages to job duties and not necessarily KSAPCs).

Fundamental: How fundamental is this job duty to the purpose of the job? Would the position be fundamentally different if this job duty was not required for performance? Handcuffing suspects is fundamental to the job of police officer. Rescuing victims is fundamental to the firefighter job. Fundamental job duties are duties that constitute "essential functions" under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (this rating is helpful, but not necessary for validation.) A job duty may be considered fundamental to the job in any of the following ways:

- the duty is frequently performed (check the Frequency rating) and/or the proportion of work time spent on it is significant (check the average Percentage of Time rating); or

- the consequence to the purpose of the job is severe if the job duty is not performed or if it is performed poorly (check the average importance rating); or

- removing the job duty would fundamentally change the job - in other words, the duty is fundamental because the reason the job exists is to perform the duty; or

- there are a limited number of employees available among whom the performance of this job duty can be distributed; or

- the duty is so highly specialized that the incumbent was placed in the job because of their expertise or ability to perform this particular job duty.

Assignable (assignable to others): Can this job duty be readily assigned to another incumbent without changing the fundamental nature of the position? in such instances, the job duty should not be considered as an "essential function" under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. For example, a job duty can be determined to be fundamental (using the "fundamental duty" rating) and hence also "essential" under the Americans with Disabilities Act; however, if such job duty can be readily assigned to another employee without changing the fundamental nature of the job, the job duty can be re-designated as not essential.

Job duties which are frequently performed or which take up a large proportion of work time and which are important or critical, probably are not easily assigned to others. duties which occur infrequently and/or which require a small percentage of work time can sometimes be assumed by others, regardless of how important or unimportant they are. For KSAPCs and Physical Requirements, supervisors can rate:

Minimum v. Helpful Qualifications: Is this KSAPC/Physical Requirement a necessity for the position? Or, while possibly helpful to the performance of the job, is it an absolute requirement? This rating can help determine which KSAPCs/Physical Requirements should be included in a selection process. Minimum qualifications are those that the applicant or candidate must have prior to entry into the position; helpful qualifications can still be included in the selection process (if they meet the other requirements discussed herein), but are not absolute necessities prior to entry.

Level needed for success (for job knowledges only): What level of this job knowledge is required on the first day of the job? Total, complete mastery? General familiarity? The data from these ratings are useful for choosing the job knowledges that should be included in a written job knowledge test (see Section 14C4 of the Uniform Guidelines for specific requirements for measuring job knowledge in a selection process.)

Level needed upon entry: How much of this KSAPC/Physical Requirement will be required on the first day of the job? All? Some? none? Will some on-the-job training be provided, or will candidates be required to bring all of this KSaPC/Physical Requirement with them on the first day of the job, with no additional levels attained after hire? This rating provides direction on which KSAPCs/Physical Requirements to screen in a selection process. This is a requirement of the Uniform Guidelines (Section 14C1).

Step 8: Prepare final job analysis document, including descriptive statistics for ratings

After compiling the job expert and supervisor rating data, a report should be compiled that provides descriptive statistics (e.g., means and standard deviations) for each rated item. The final data (e.g., job duties, KSAPCs, etc.) can be entered directly into the job analysis document, along with the means and standard deviations that accompany each, to compile a final job analysis for a position.

AutoGOJA Job Analysis Software is a hosted software solution that automates many steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Qualified organizations may sign up for a FREE Basic Job Analysis account. This FREE service will allow an organization to complete a job analysis for one position. The account may be upgraded to allow for analyses to be performed on subsequent job titles.

The GOJA Manual is a manual (paper and pencil) solution that leads that leads an HR practician through the steps necessary to complete a traditional job analysis. Organizations opting to perform a manual job analysis may download our free Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis form. This 99-page job analysis booklet is free to download, print and use (without modification) for any number of job analyses.

Back To AutoGOJA Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis

Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA™)
, Biddle Consulting Group's highly respected and legally tested job analysis process is now a fully functional and extremely powerful online job analysis system.

Designed to address the requirements of the federal Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures the 1991 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), AutoGOJA will help employers collect the information necessary to defend their testing, selection, and compensation practices.

AutoGOJA is designed specifically for the human resource professional who needs to conduct the most legally defensible job analysis in a fast and efficient manner. Sign up for a free AutoGOJA account or request more information about AutoGOJA and Biddle's job analysis consulting services.

Conduct a thorough job analysis ONLINE!

Any employer can establish an FREE AutoGOJA account that will allow them to conduct job analyses online, anytime.

AutoGOJA Job Analysis Software Features:

Sign up for a FREE AutoGOJA account and perform a job analysis on a single job title. Upgrade your account to allow for more job titles at any time.

.   Easily create custom job analysis surveys by typing your own task or KSA statements right into the system or import lists of tasks or KSAs from any popular word processing or spreadsheet software.
.   Launch the survey by automatically sending a "link" to your subject matter experts or simply by copying the link into any browser.
.   The survey can be completed as part of a facilitated group meeting in a computer lab or the link can be distributed wherever employees work to ensure adequate geographic, shift, gender and ethnic representation in the job analysis sample.


Easily complete linkages between knowledge, skill or abilities and the duties on the job.
.   Generate summary reports that will document those job duties that are critical to job performance as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are both critical and which are required at entry to the job.
.   Generate a selection matrix or exam plan automatically.
.   Free regular system upgrades to enhance features based of feedback from users.

AutoGOJA basic account is completely FREE and will allow a complete job analysis for one job title. Account upgrades that will allow for job analyses on many job titles are available for an affordable annual subscription fee. Click to request your FREE AutoGOJA job analysis software account. Your account will typically be available within 48 hours of signing up.

Already have an account? Log in to your AutoGOJA job analysis software account here.

Questions? If you have questions regarding AutoGOJA, please email your inquiries to or call us at 1-800-999-0438 extension 181. We are happy to assist and your questions and comments are always welcome!

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